Emphasis on standards and results:
Emphasis on standards and results: (1) undermines students’ interest in learning, (2) makes failure seem overwhelming, (3) leads students to avoid challenging themselves, (4) reduces the quality of learning, and (5) invites students to think about how smart they are instead of how hard they tried.
Alfie Kohn, Writer and Speaker (2003)
Fifth graders told they would be graded on how well they learned a social studies lesson had more trouble understanding the main point of the text than did those who were told that no grades would be involved.
Golnick and Ryan (1987)